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The Second International Symposium of Fatigue of Materials: Advances and Emergences in Understanding is a five-session symposium held in conjunction with the Materials Science and Technology Conference 2012 (MS&T 2012) at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, during October 7-11, 2012. The abstracts that were submitted for presentation at this symposium cover a diverse range of topics. We have made an attempt to group these papers into sessions that focus on closely-related topics. However, as can be expected, many of the papers could fit into more than one session. In the ensuing discussion, we provide a cohesive, complete and compelling overview of the symposium as well as a summary of the abstracts that were submitted. Session 1(Overview 1) and Session 2 (Overview II) contain papers that (i) Review the current state of knowledge both related and relevant to the subject of fatigue behavior of materials, and (ii) New, innovative, and emerging techniques for experimental evaluation of the fatigue behavior. In concurrence the papers attempt to analyze the data for aspects relevant to design and simultaneously predicting the useful life of components and structures. Session 3 (Aerospace Materials I) and Session 4 (Aerospace Materials II) focus on advanced materials that are used in performance-critical applications in the aerospace and automotive industries, such as the alloys of titanium, nickel, aluminum, and magnesium. Session 5 is a collection of papers relating to other materials of engineering interest, such as iron and steel, polymer, rubber, and even composites. In the summary presented below, the session number and paper number are identified by S and P. Topics related to the influence of both processing and the environment are covered in papers presented in all the sessions of this symposium, and are briefly summarized here as a group with additional discussion included in the individual sessions.