Calotropis procera is of the family Asclepiadaceae. It is perennial shrubby tree let with thick cottony tomentose leaves when young and frequently glabrescent when fully developed. C. procera (Ait.) R.Br. commonly known, as ‘Arka’ is a popular medicinal plant found throughout the tropics of Asia and Africa. Different part of the plant have been advocated for use in many traditional systems of medicine as anticancer, anticoagulant, purgative, anthelmintic, antileprotic, abortifacient etc. The plant has been reported to possess diverse biological as well as pharmacological activities. Different parts of the plant have been found to possess proteolytic, antimicrobial, and pesticidal activity, more studies on the way of delivery in environment and mode of action are still recommended for effective control of pest. The book therefore report preparation of extracts prepared from different parts of the plant and their potential as molluscicide against the freshwater snails Lymnaea acuminate and Indoplanorbis exustus, the vectors of Fasciola hepatica and gigantica the causative organisms of fascioliasis in livestock.
Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae) is a serious weed of pastures, wasteland and agricultural fields in world. Various problems are posed by the weed to human health, biodiversity agriculture and live stock production. It is used as folk remedy against various afflictions. Parthenium owes its several prominent biological activities to several important chemical compounds like histamine, saponin, glucosides and triterpene (sesquiterpene). The book reports the toxicological and biochemical effects of the plant extract on rats.
Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of concern in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 4 plants belonging to 4 families (Calotropis gigantean, Mimosa pudica, Achyranthes aspera and Hibiscus rosa-siensis variety: Kalyani, which were collected from different places in Bangladesh (Faridpur) for their in vitro antibacterial, antioxidant and toxicological evaluation. The 4 plants were extracted with methanol and chloroform to yield 8 extracts by Soxhlet’s extraction. Antimicrobial activity was tested by agar diffusion & broth micro-dilution assay. Antioxidant activity was investigated by measuring the scavenging activity of the DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical. Evaluation for in vitro toxicological screening was done against MDCK (Madin-Darby Kanine Kidney) cells by using an established microtiter plate assay based on cellular staining with trypan blue. The results will guide the selection of some plant species for further pharmacological and phytochemical investigations.
Freshwater snails are used as sensitive biomarkers of aquatic ecosystem pollution. The potential impacts of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on aquatic ecosystems have attracted special attention due to their unique properties. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the possible mechanisms of ecotoxicological effects of ZnONPs on freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina. ZnONPs showed molluscicidal activity against B. alexandrina snails, and the LC50 was 145 ug/ml.Exposure to ZnONPs (7 and 35 ug/ml) for three consecutive weeks significantly induced malondialdehyde and nitric oxide with concomitant decreases in glutathione and glutathione- S-transferase levels in hemolymph and soft tissues of treated snails. Moreover, ZnONPs elicited a significant decrease in total protein and albumin contents coinciding with enhancement of total lipids and cholesterol levels as well as activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase hemolymph and soft tissues of treated snails.
This book focusses on the pharmacological and toxicological investigations of Saraca indica (Family :Caesalpiniaceae) , a well known plant in the Indian traditional medicinal system. The present investigation deals with the toxicological and biochemical evaluation of the alcoholic extract of bark of Saraca indica through acute and subacute toxicity studies. Also, The antidepressant and oestrogenic activities were evaluated. In addition, genotoxic assays were carried out to assess the effect of Saraca indica bark extract in swiss albino mice.
The study was conducted to evaluate different tomato genotypes against PEG-simulated osmotic stress. Genotypes performing best against PEG-simulated stress were further subjected to water stress at reproductive stage in order to assess their proline, chlorophyll and MSI. Biochemical analysis of selected lines for variation in total proteins using SDS-PAGE was also performed. Identification of drought tolerant lines and their characterisation and evaluation under open field conditions was conducted by recording their morphological performance for different parameters. The use of PEG at seedling stage found to be a good tool for screening large germplasm collection under lab condition. Estimation of physiological attributes (Proline, chlorophyll and membrane) also supported this approach to be a reliable one. Field evaluation provided a useful information for morphological traits in selected genotypes. SDS-PAGE profile reflected variation in banding pattern due to induced stress. The selected genotypes can be used for further manipulation of crop plants.
The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic assessment of acetone extract of Psidium guajava L. leaves (PGA) by evaluating toxicological and antiulcer properties. Extraction was done sequentially in soxhlet apparatus. For toxicity study, PGA was administered orally to Wistar albino rats at a dose range of 540, 1080 and 2160 mg/kg of body weight. Animals were observed for physiological and behavioral responses, mortality, feed and water intake and body weight changes up to 14 days, thenafter hematological parameters and organ weights were recorded. Antiulcer activity was evaluated on ethanol and ethanol/HCl induced ulcers at two different doses (135 and 270 mg/kg) in Wistar albino rats. The oral administration of PGA did not cause any toxicity to rats. Feed and water intake and body weight changes were not affected. PGA showed significant reduction in ulcer index, volume of gastric juice, pH, free and total acidity in rats. The antiulcer activity observed in PGA treated groups was better than that of the standard Omeprazole. This work suggests that Psidium guajava could be used for the development of new phytotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of gastric ulcer.
In Pakistan Citrus has an important value as fruit plant. The present day citrus is delectable, juicy, and seedless is of great nutritional significance as well. Citrus is a member of Rutaceae family and grown in varying densities in countries with tropical or subtropical climates. Its delicious edible varieties are Kinnow, Pine apple, Valencia late, Grape fruit, Blood red, Chinese lime, Mayer lime, Sweet lime, Fuetrell's early, Jaffa, Succari, Tangrin, Mungal Singh, and Musambi etc. It is used as best source of Vitamin C, sugars, amino acids and other nutrients. It has been reported that citrus prevent liver, lung and skin cancer, heart diseases, birth defects and also contributes to a balance and healthy life style. Citrus has been regarded as Queen of all fruits world wide citrus stands first in area and production.Pakistan has versatile climatic conditions and nearly all types of fruits might be produced successfully. A large area of Pakistan has sub tropical and tropical climate. Citrus being a fruit of these climates, receives more attention as compared to other fruits.
It is concluded that patients suffering from essential hypertension exhibit that biological system is under the oxidative stress where MDA shows indirect correlation with anti-oxidants particularly with SOD (r=-0.573*) and catalase (r=-0.633**) representing that anti-oxidants are involved in reducing the stress of biological system during hypertension. Moreover, indirect correlation between MDA and Vitamin D (r=-0.663***) reflecting that biological system is also facing the malfunctioning of immune system during essential hypertension.
Molluscicides have a history of success and failure in schistosomiasis control. High cost of imported synthetic compounds, along with increasing concern over the snail resistance to these compounds and their toxicity in non-target organisms, has given a new impetus to study plants molluscicides. Three screens were developed to investigate new plant molluscicides from family Euphorbiales. In the preliminary screen, the aim was to identify the plants parts which had no molluscicidal activity and those which did to the snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi and allowed for determination of the LD50 and LD90 values. In the secondary screen, the molluscicidal activity was carried out in which factors that affect the molluscicidal performance under field conditions were investigated by laboratory simulation. For the definitive screen, most stable plant molluscicide was examined for its toxicity towards snail egg masses, other snails and non-target organism. Active components came in later stage of definitive evaluation together with studies of toxicology. Histopathological studies of different organs of treated snails were carried out and compared with the normal tissue from control snails.
The phytochemical screening of the plant (Cissus multistriata) revealed the presence of important phytochemicals, such as saponins, steroids, flavonoids etc. Important glyconutrients such as xylose, fucose,mannose and galactose have been detected to be present in this plant. Based on the nutrients resident in this plant it is hoped that it can serve as better dietary supplement. From the result of this investigation, this plant does not possess anti –diabetic properties as claimed by the users, but have demonstrated the potential of hypocholesterolemic capacity, hence can be used in the management of cardiovascular diseases. It is inferred from this work that the detected glyconutrients are contributory to the antimicrobial activities of this plant. The plant extract can be used in the management of hemolytic anemia and that the herbal extract is relatively safe at lower doses, exerts weak inhibition to Artemia salina (brine – shrimps) hence cytotoxicity is quite low. The plant exhibited great antioxidant activity with the unripe fruit and stem having the highest.
Husk tomato has been known in Egypt for a long time ago. Recently, economical importance of husk tomato is raising, what due to its high acceptance in the local consumption with achieving a great success in Arabic and European markets. The idea was conducted to utilize this crop for processing many products throughout its contributing with apricot fruits to increase the nutritional and marketable values of such products with lower prices. Results stated a good nutritional value of fresh husk tomato juice especially in (carotenoids, polyphenolic compounds, vitamin C) comparing with the same components in fresh apricot juice which reflexes positively on the final products. The best formulas according to the sensorial evaluation were (50% apricot juice + 50% husk tomato) and (25% apricot juice + 75% husk tomato juice), whereas for leathers “Quamar El-Din” was (25% apricot juice + 75% husk tomato juice) the best. In comparison with the marketable leathers, our processed leathers “Quamar El-Din” were better and cheaper.
The pharmacological studies, acute toxicity, sub acute or repeated dose 28 day oral toxicity study and sub chronic or repeated dose 90 day oral toxicity study of HF cross bred cow urine as well as routine comparative study of urine from different breeds of cows were carried out in the present investigation in wistar albino rats.In conclusion, crossbred milking HF cows’ urine and indigenous cow breeds showed hepatoprotective effect and wound healing properties. Crossbred milking HF cows’ urine was found to be safe at the used dosage in terms of various hematological and biochemical parameters.
In this book B. cereus was used as a mosquito larvicidal agent against the major vector mosquitoes such as Cx. quinquefasciatus, An. Stephensi and Ae. aegypti and recorded significant mosquito larval controlling efficiency. The present investigation also detailed the anatomical dislocation or disintegration of the cells of the gut regions of An. Stephensi. Their rapid potential in assassination often providing B. cereus, an eligibility to become the potential larvicidal, eco-friendly agent in the mosquito born disease control programme.
Water quality is of a great importance for every being. Because of its importance, the present work is planned to evaluate water quality in the WTPs, survey WTPs? quality focusing on the study of the differences among the different WTPs, and study the effect of the WTP?s design on the water quality and the effect of water treatment on the health. For this reason, 3 different WTPs were chosen from Damietta Governorate. These WTPs were chosen on the basis of their design differences.To achieve our aim, control fish were collected from a private fish farm in El- Manzalah Lake representing control group In conclusion 1- There are significant differences and improvement in water quality between before and after treatment, these show the role of the WTPs in removing or reducing turbidity, bacteria and some heavy metals not all.2-In the same time, biochemical and histological analyses of Oreochromis niloticus were done.