Most reactions in organic chemistry do not proceed in a single step but rather take several steps to yield the desired product. In the course of these multi-step reaction sequences, short-lived intermediates can be generated that quickly convert into other intermediates, reactants, products or side products. As these intermediates are highly reactive, they cannot usually be isolated, but their existence and structure can be proved by theoretical and experimental methods. Using the information obtained, researchers can better understand the underlying reaction mechanism of a certain organic transformation and thus develop novel strategies for efficient organic synthesis. The chapters are clearly structured and are arranged according to the type of intermediate, providing information on the formation, characterization, stereochemistry, stability, and reactivity of the intermediates. Additionally, representative examples and a problem section with different levels of difficulty are included for self-testing the newly acquired knowledge. By providing a deeper understanding of the underlying concepts, this is a musthave reference for PhD and Master Students in organic chemistry, as well as a valuable source of information for chemists in academia and industry working in the field. It is also ideal as primary or supplementary reading for courses on organic chemistry, physical organic chemistry or analytical chemistry.
An updated guide to the core concepts of program evaluation This updated edition of Program Evaluation in Practice covers the core concepts of program evaluation and uses case studies to touch on real-world issues that arise when conducting an evaluation project. This important resource is filled with illustrative examples written in accessible terms and provides a wide variety of evaluation projects that can be used for discussion, analysis, and reflection. The book addresses foundations and theories of evaluation, tools and methods for collecting data, writing of reports, and the sharing of findings. The discussion questions and class activities at the end of each chapter are designed to help process the information in that chapter and to integrate the information from the other chapters, thus facilitating the learning process. As useful for students as it is for evaluators in training, Program Evaluation in Practice is a must-have text for those aspiring to be effective evaluators. Includes expanded discussion of basic theories and approaches to program evaluation Features a new chapter on objective-based evaluation and a new section on ethics in program evaluation Provides more detailed information and in-depth description for each case, including evaluation approaches, fresh references, new readings, and the new Joint Committee Standards for Evaluation
Facial Aesthetics: Concepts and Clinical Diagnosis is a unique new illustrated resource for facial aesthetic surgery and dentistry, providing the comprehensive clinical textbook on the art and science of facial aesthetics for clinicians involved in the management of facial deformities, including orthodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, plastic and reconstructive surgeons and aesthetic dentists. It aims to provide readers with a comprehensive examination of facial aesthetics in the context of dentofacial and craniofacial diagnosis and treatment planning. This aim is achieved through coupling meticulous research and practical clinical advice with beautifully drawn supporting illustrations and diagrams. Structured over 24 logically arranged and easy-to-follow chapters, Part I of Facial Aesthetics covers the historical evidence for facial aesthetic canons and concepts in depth. It incorporates all aspects relevant to the work of the clinician, including the philosophical and scientific theories of facial beauty, facial attractiveness research, facial expression and the psychosocial ramifications of facial deformities. Part II of the book then goes on to examine clinical evaluation and diagnosis in considerable detail under four sections, from the initial consultation interview and acquisition of diagnostic records (section 1), complete clinical examination and analysis of the craniofacial complex (section 2), in depth analysis of each individual facial region using a top-down approach (section 3) and finally focussing on smile and dentogingival aesthetic evaluation (section 4). An in-depth, thoughtful, practical and absorbing reference, Facial Aesthetics will find an enthusiastic reception among facial aesthetic surgeons and aesthetic dentists with an interest in refining their understanding and appreciation of the human face and applying practical protocols to their clinical diagnosis and treatment planning. Key features: Examines facial aesthetics in a clinical context Promotes an interdisciplinary approach to facial aesthetic analysis Detailed description of the systematic clinical evaluation of the facial soft tissues and craniodentoskeletal complex Detailed, step-by-step aesthetic analysis of each facial region In-depth analysis of 2D and 3D clinical diagnostic records Evidence-based approach, from antiquity to contemporary scientific evidence, to the guidelines employed in planning the correction of facial deformities Treatment planning from first principles highlighted Clinical notes are highlighted throughout Clearly organized and practical format Highly illustrated in full colour throughout
A succinct, real-world approach to complete bridge system design and evaluation Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) and Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) are design and evaluation methods that have replaced or offered alternatives to other traditional methods as the new standards for designing and load-rating U.S. highway bridges. Bridge Design and Evaluation covers complete bridge systems (substructure and superstructure) in one succinct, manageable package. It presents real-world bridge examples demonstrating both their design and evaluation using LRFD and LRFR. Designed for a 3- to 4-credit undergraduate or graduate-level course, it presents the fundamentals of the topic without expanding needlessly into advanced or specialized topics. Important features include: Exclusive focus on LRFD and LRFR Hundreds of photographs and figures of real bridges to connect the theoretical with the practical Design and evaluation examples from real bridges including actual bridge plans and drawings and design methodologies Numerous exercise problems Specific design for a 3- to 4-credit course at the undergraduate or graduate level The only bridge engineering textbook to cover the important topics of bridge evaluation and rating Bridge Design and Evaluation is the most up-to-date and inclusive introduction available for students in civil engineering specializing in structural and transportation engineering.