Insects are the largest group among animals and plants.India is a land of wide range of ecological, climatic and vertical distribution of insect fauna.In the elevated, colder and forested areas of the country, Insect fauna is much varied, coulorful and plenty. Over 60,000 thousand species of insects are recorded from India. This project is an effort to record data on forest ecosystem and to prepare current insect inventory for the study area. It also gives distribution and composition of the insect species in terms of community structure and diversity. This book presents the concepts, themes and ideas on biogeography, community ecology, taxic diversity, guild structure, richness and abundance and biotic interference. It depicts importance of insect diversity for conservation and management projects for sustainable use of the natural resources. This book will help the conservation biologist, economist, biodiversity managers and professionals for strategic planning of the biodiversity projects.
Biodiversity is one of the important cornerstones of sustainable growth and represents the biological riches of the country. India is one among the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the universe that accounts vast number of insect species, of which Lepidopteran insects particularly moths are dominating and fascinating group. The northern Maharashtra also represents good faunal diversity, present work helps to identify some aspects of diversity of the moth fauna of the area which is not carried out previously. This book deals out not merely in the identification of moths, but also offers information regarding methods to conduct diversity studies for moths. This book has offered a catalogue of the moth fauna of North Maharashtra for the first time and sets the basis for systematic research in the field. In all, 405 moth species belongs to 23 families have been identified and illustrated with their images.
Monography on the species composition and ecological characteristics of insects living on one of the largest in Central Europe bogs "Yelnia" (North-West of Belarus). In the course of many years of field research, the author collected and analyzed great stuff. A specific complex of insects was recorded. It comprises an approximately small number of species with a high abundance of some of them. Many of the insects are highly specialized to the ecological conditions of the bog (tyrphobionts and tyrphphiles). These species are good indicators of any change in the specific ecological conditions of peat bogs. The insect fauna of the peat bog Yelnia is unique for the temperate zone as it includes of relict boreal, boreomontane, arctoboreal and subarctic species. From a zoogeographical viewpoint, the fauna composition of Yelnya has groups with a Holarctic or Palaearctic range. The specific composition of the peat bog Yelnia in general is close to the species of Northern, Eastern and Central Europe.
Rice-Wheat cropping system covers about 11 m ha in India, is the backbone of India's food security. This cropping system produces as high as 12.8 to 17.0 t/ha/annum at different levels of cultivation and is highly nutrient depleting but the factors responsible for success of this system are good economic return, market infrastructural support and very little risk making increasingly popular with the farmers over the years. The introduction of the non-sensitive, input responsive, relatively early maturing varieties of rice and wheat in the mid 60's enabled farmers to intensify land use and increased the acreage under this important cropping system. In recent years, there is a problem to sustain the high yield levels of rice-wheat in India. Several factors including attack of insect pests and diseases are considered responsible for stagnation in productivity of this cropping system. The present investigations were, therefore, carried out with a view to monitor insect pests, diseases and natural enemies operating in rice and wheat ecosystems and to develop an effective bio intensive management strategy to contain population buildup of major insect pests and diseases of rice and wheat.
The growth of cucurbit crops are severely affected by a number of insect pests among which, the red pumpkin beetle Aulacophora (Raphidopalpa) foveicollis (Lucas) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are the most damaging and major pests. The beetle causes heavy damage during early phase of plant growth in India and abroad. Curative control measures are practiced to protect them. The proper control of pests minimizes economic losses and damage to the environment. The infestation by the pest on all the major cucurbitaceous crops is also noticed from Cachar district- one of the major district of Barak Valley which is situated in the southern part of Assam, North-East India. The management practices are not enough due to lack of scientific knowledge of its ecology and biology. There is a need for studying and documenting the proper knowledge of insect pest incidence in different agro-climatic environments. The main aim of the book is to help the researchers, policy makers, scientists, academicians to give a brief idea about the Ecology and Biology of this pest in the southern part of Assam in NE India.
The third edition of Insect Ecology: An Ecosystem Approach provides a modern perspective of insect ecology that integrates two approaches traditionally used to study insect ecology: evolutionary and ecosystem. This integration substantially broadens the scope of insect ecology and contributes to prediction and resolution of the effects of current environmental changes, as these affect and are affected by insects. The third edition includes an updated and expanded synthesis of feedback and interactions between insects and their environment. This updated material and a new chapter on applications of insect ecology to social and environmental issues effectively demonstrates how evolutionary and ecosystem approaches complement each other, with the intent of stimulating further integration of these approaches in experiments that address insect roles in ecosystems. Effective management of ecosystem resources depends on evaluation of the complex, often complementary, effects of insects on ecosystem conditions, as well as insect responses to changing conditions.
Northeast India is one of the most important hotspot of biological diversity. Owing to varied topography, dense forests and humid climate, the state of Assam has harboars a rich butterflies fauna and including many species which are confined to this region only. However, in recent years, the forest of Assam and Northeast India are rapidly being logged owing to increasing pressure of illegal tree fellers, shifting agriculture, construction of rail roads & highways, human settlements, construction of dams and thus most of the natural biota are potentially been lost. Those habitat alterations also lead to the elimination of most of the native butterflies from the region. Amongst butterflies, the Nymphalid supports both wide and narrow range species. The narrow range species are restricted to specific bio-geographical regions, whereas, others are widely distributed. These groups are used as a potential subject for analytical studies by the ecologists across the globe concerning recent scenarios of anthropogenic disturbances. Thus the present study had been carried out in Assam as a modeled study to highlight the effect of forest degradation on butterflies for future conservation.
Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] belonging to family Leguminosae is one of the principal pulse crop of tropics. It is popular crop because of its superior nutritional quality, both in terms of high protein content (around 24%) and easy digestibility. The protein of mungbean is rich in lysine, which is a limiting essential amino acid in cereals. In India, major mungbean producing states are Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Bihar. In Gujarat, it is cultivated in about 1.684 lakh hectare with an annual production of 0.767 lakh tones and average productivity of 455kg/ha. A number of insect pests belonging to different orders have been recorded in various parts of the world. In India, there are about 60 insects pests have been reported to infest mungbean crop from seedling to maturity.In view of the importance of mungbean and seriousness of these pests, it becomes absolutely necessary to have comprehensive information of these pests.
Sariska is a tiger reserve with a lot of biodiversity and situated in eastern part of Rajasthan. This book is a inclusive document on the Sariska. From the past Sariska faces good and bad time chronologically, but still remains with a lot of attraction for tourists as well as researchers.In this book i have covered all the possible problems of the Sariska reserve area with administrative status of solutions.The status of displacement, poaching and other confronting issues between villagers and administration as well as wildlife are also discussed.
The Forest Owlet is a critically endangered bird species rediscovered after 113 years in November 1997 in Satpuda Mountains of Central India. The Forest Owlet utilizes open forests with moderate undergrowth and least anthropogenic disturbance. It preys upon rodents, skink, agamid and insects and shows seasonal variation in diet. It shows nest site fidelity during breeding season which plays a vital role in breeding success. Predation of fledglings, ovicide, infanticide and egg stealing from nest by humans are the major factors influencing the breeding success of the Forest Owlet. Encroachments, increasing use of pesticide and rodenticides, illicit woodcutting, grazing and superstitions among tribal are influencing the survival of the Forest Owlet. Community management, joint forest management and alternative livelihood through sustainable development are the key factors in long term conservation of the Forest Owlet.
Gill nets were the most commonly used gear depended upon by the maximum fishermen in Ratnagiri, India. Marine gill nets of Ratnagiri were investigated to study their design and technical characteristics. Ten fishing centres from Ratnagiri where gill net fishing is actively done were selected for the study. The nets were classified into different groups and the technical specifications of each type were detailed. Nets of different mesh sizes ranging from 45 to 200 mm targeted at different groups of fishes were prevalent in Ratnagiri. Synthetic materials like polyamide had almost completely replaced the natural fibres in gill nets. PA monofilament material was most popularly used for gill nets targeted for mackerel, pomfret, shrimp, shark and sole fish while, PA multifilament material was mostly used for seer fish. For gill net fishing in Ratnagiri, vessels such as dugout canoe, plank built canoe with or without outrigger, wooden, FRP coated wooden and FRP boats were being used. Non-motorized, motorized and mechanized fishing vessels were engaged in gill net fishing operation from Ratnagiri.
The majorities of African mammals are small mammals although their ecology is least studied due to their small size, nocturnal in activity, shyness and secretive habit. From mammalian orders, rodents and shrews (excluding bat) have the largest number of species. For instance, rodents account for about 50% of mammalian species in the world; nearly 28% in East Africa; and 30% in Ethiopia and 50% of the Ethiopian endemic mammal fauna. Despite of high species diversity of rodents and shrews in Ethiopia, only few studies were carried out on their population, taxonomy and ecology. Moreover, today they are declining due to habitat loss and fragmentation resulted from anthropogenic activities. This is also true for small mammals of Mount Chilalo and Galama Mountains Range. In view of this, the book presents the ecological investigations of rodents and shrews of Mount Chilalo and Galalma Mountains Range in detail. Particularly issues on species composition, distribution, relative abundance, habitat association and seasonal population dynamics were covered in depth. The book is particularly helpful for who have interest on the ecology of small mammals of Afromontane and Afroalpine habitats.
Farmers Opinions are taken using Questionnaires’ and evaluated the Questionnaires’. Indian Agriculture culture and Maharashtra agriculture Practice is Described. Irrigation practices in District Sangli are explained. The need and use of Wireless sensor networks in agriculture field is explained.Farmers suggestions are also given.From this case study any body can evaluate farmers problems,also those problems can be overcome by taking help from Agriculture Experts and Soil testing method. Most important practice is effective utilization of fertilizers and Irrigating the land. Applications of wireless sensor networks effectively utilizes the water resources and fertilizers and this avoids the unnecessary burdens of farmers. The required manpower is also less by using modern Irrigation system.
Comprehensive study has been made on the ecology and productive potential of Chando, an oxbow lake of river Manorma, Basti (U.P.)INDIA. Two years observations (From June 2010- May 2012) in terms of alterations in the physico-chemical parameters, phyto and zooplankton abundance (qualitative and quantitative), cyanobacterial diversity, macrophytes abundance, annual fish catch and icthyodiversity- orderwise including clupeiformes,cypriniformes (two division namely cyprini and siluri), beloniformes, perciformes, mastacembeleformes,cyprinodontiformes, mugiliformes, ophiocephaliformes, symbranchiformes and tetrodontiformes has been illustrated. Possible sites for boosting up of aquaculture production has been pointed out. Results reveal that Chando is an unpolluted freshwater lake since, no industrial effluent get their way in this lake, hence productive potential may further be increased by improving the management practices.
Gulf of Mannar is one of the unique coastal regions for rich biodiversity in India. There is a vast area between Tuticorin and Kanyakumari which has never been explored so far even its comes under Marine Biosphere Reserve and includes thousands of fishermen who depend on fishery for their daily livelihood. The present pilot scale study was conducted in kudankulam coast within a 4 km radius in marine zone from kudankulam nuclear power project which confirmed that southern part of the Gulf of Mannar can also provide plentiful resources including rich ecologically sensitive habitats like seagrass and coral ecosystem. The resources in this region may not be similar to the northern part between Rameswaram and Tuticorin, but they are potent enough to provide a good source for fishery. Since various developmental activities like the nuclear power plant which is to be operated in the near future, it is very important to have a detailed baseline data on the seagrass, corals and associated organisms of this coastal region.With this baseline data the number of species in the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve can be estimated in the future studies.