Sorghum is one of the cereal crops grown in most parts of the world for animal feed and human consumption. Its wide range of adaptations makes it to be called a “Camel Crop” and may be a crop for the future especially in drought prone areas as it tends to tolerate water shortage and stress. This booklet highlights some of the effects of nitrogen on sorghum growth, quality and yield. The subject matter covered in this book will help students, farmers and those involved in research to learn more about the influence of various levels of nitrogen on sorghum growth. Dr Cleto Namoobe
A field experiment was conducted at Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine Research field during 2010/2011 in dry season to study the effects of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilization on growth, yield, quality and storage life of irrigated Onion under Jimma conditions, Southwestern Ethiopia. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations of four levels of N as Urea, three levels of P as TSP and four levels of K as Potassium sulphate which were laid out in a Randomized Incomplete Block Design with three replications. Data on growth, yield, quality and storage life parameters were recorded and analyzed using GenStat 12.1 version computer soft ware packages. Results of the study revealed that; N, P and K had shown a highly significant difference on growth, yield, quality and storage life parameters.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important food crop in the Ethiopian agriculture. However, the crop’s production is constrained by many biotic and abiotic factors. Amongst Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth is the most tenacious, prolific and destructive agricultural pests to sorghum crop.This pest is most abundant and damaging on soils of low fertility and nitrogen is an essential element for reversing this effect. Field experiment was conducted during 2008 (2000/01 E.C.) crop growing rainy season Northern Ethiopia to study the productivity response of sorghum varieties to different rates of nitrogen application under naturally Striga infested field. Results showed that application of N-fertilizer at different rates significantly increased plant height, leaf area, leaf area index, panicle length, yield per panicle, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, Stover yield and harvest index over the control.
The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three dates of transplanting (D1, D2 and D3) as main plot treatment, three genotypes (V1, V2 and V3) and two nitrogen levels (N1 and N2) as sub-plot treatment with three replications. The results obtained during the track of study, discovered that the weather had played, significant role in deciding the yield of rice. However, the weather variables affected the crop growth, development and yield differently in different phenophases during its growth period. The results, regarding different phenophases as well as yield attributing characters of rice genotypes as influenced by different treatments.
The present investigation was carried out agricultural college, Bapatla, ANGRAU, Hyderabad, India, with the objective of evaluate the performance of popular rice varieties to levels of nitrogen and find out the need for nitrogen application over and above the recommended level , during 2009–10. The findings of the experiment revealed that the growth parameters such as plant height, number of tillers m-2, drymatter production, chlorophyll content (SPAD reading), number of green leaves per culm, days to 50 per cent flowering and maturity measured at different intervals were significantly influenced by varieties and nitrogen levels. We are taken four varieties viz., BPT 5204, NLR 28523, NLR 33892 and MTU 1061 and five nitrogen levels 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 kg N ha-1.
This book basically based on an applied research whose main objectives were to: 1.To see the effect of different phosphorus levels on growth and nitrogen fixation by mash bean. 2.To determine the optimum level of phosphorus for nitrogen fixation by mash bean. In the course of this research experiment we concluded that N2 fixation capacity and yield components of mash bean were enhanced by the application of phosphorus. Response of mash bean was more pronounced to the highest and medium levels of phosphorus fertilization as compare to low level of phosphorus and control.
A field experiment was conducted at Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine research field from October 2011 to March 2012 under irrigation to assess the response of onion to farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizer rates. The study consists of four levels of FYM (0, 15, 30 and 45 ton FYM ha-1) and four levels of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1). The experiment was conducted in 4 ? 4 factorial arrangements in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on growth, yield, and quality parameters were recorded and analyzed using SAS Computer Software version 9.2. Results revealed that interaction of FYM and N fertilizer significantly (P < 0.05) influenced Plant height, number of leaves, leaf lengh, maturity, average bulb weight, total yield, marketable yield, harvest index, bulb dry matter, TSS and split bulbs. However, leaf diameter, bulb length, bulb diameter and unmarketable yield were not affected by the combined application of FYM and N fertilizer. The findings highlighted that the performance of onion at Jimma area can be enhanced through application of FYM and N fertilizers.
High quality seed is the key for successful agriculture in modern era. The seed quality as determined by vigour and viability of the seed, is influenced by the environmental conditions under which a seed crop matures. Besides environmental factors, seed production in okra is influenced by different factors such as sowing dates and plant geometry. Available reports suggest that planting dates play an important role in growth, fruit formation and seed yield in okra. The early sown crops experience high temperature and hot winds during their growth period resulting in stunted growth, less number of fruits and reduced seed yield. Whereas, the late sown crops which encounter high rainfall during flowering and fruit set are more prone to attack by insect-pests and diseases. Plant density also plays an important role in the seed production of okra. Keeping the above facts in view, this book was written describing the effect of date of sowing and plant geometry on growth, seed yield and seed quality of okra (variety Varsha Uphar). It also ascertains the relationship of different sowing dates and plant geometry with seed quality in okra.
Potato production is an important agricultural activity in the southern Ethiopia. However, the yield of the crop is very low due to a number of constraints among which low soil fertility and poor agronomic practices are few. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and plant spacing on growth, yield and yield components of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) at Umbullo Watcho watershed, Southern Region in 2010 cropping season. The experimental treatments; five nitrogen levels (0, 55, 110, 165 and 220 kg N ha-1) as sub plot and three intra- row plant spacing (25, 30 and 35cm) as main plot were laid out in split plot design with three replications. Therefore, the research was carried out with the following objectives: Evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and /or plant spacing on growth and tuber yield of potato, assess nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency and nutrient recovery by the potato crop and assess the economic benefit of nitrogen fertilizer use.
This book is written to serve as a reference/ guide book for the students of Agriculture, Agronomy and field practitioners. This book fills the need for an up-to date comprehensive guidance on Agronomic management practices to the students at under graduate and post graduate levels. The dry land regional appropriate soil nitrogen fertilizer rate application under different tomato plant population densities with their viable economic budget analysis are incorporated in this book which will serve as a valuable guide book to the persons working with farming communities. The coverage of the book brings out different impacts of Agronomic practices including use of different levels of mineral Nitrogen fertilizer and plant population densities on physiological growth, Quality and economic yield advantage of marketable tomato fruit. Each chapter is complete and illustrated in easy and simple language.
Foliar application of plant nutrients appeared to be the most promising tool in modern plant nutrition management. While foliar application provides a quick relief to the plants under the deficiencies of various nutrients, it also helps maintain/improve growth, yield and quality of crops under nutrient deficiency stresses. This monograph emphasizes the role of foliar application of nitrogen as urea in enhancing the nutrient uptake (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium), yield and quality of wheat.
Corn (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world and in Egypt. Therefore, the present work was designed to investigate the response of corn to nitrogen and manganese fertilization. Two field experiments were conducted during two successive growing seasons of 1997 and 1998. The effect of four nitrogen levels, three manganese nutrient rates and three methods of Mn applications on the growth, grain yield and its components as well as grain quality of maize were investigated. The soil of the experimental plots was clay texture (pH value 7.91, CaCO3 3.89 % and organic matter 1.98 %, 17.3 mg/kg available N and 8.5 mg/kg available Mn). A spilt-plot in a randomized complete block design with four replications was used; the main plots were devoted for nitrogen levels, the sub-plot for Mn levels and their methods of applications. The results of the experiments could be summarized as follows: The highest grain yield and its quality were generally recorded by foliar application or soaking grains with 70 mg Mn /l plus 150 kg N/fed in Qaliuobia Gavernorate. In all cases, consideration should be given to the actual available contents of the nutrient in the soil itself.
Improving Productivity and Fruit Quality of ''Crimson Seedless'' Grapes. For improving fruit quality of ''Crimson Seedless'' table grape the balance of vegetative and generative growth was regulated by different N and K fertilization, by pruning, and by fruit thinning. Dry matter, sugar content, acidity as well as anthocyanins, stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic acids, proanthocyanidins and flavonols were estimated as quality parameters. Fruit quality was positively influenced by reduced N-fertilization and by fruit thinning combined with basal leaf removal.
Nitrogen application showed significant response at all the stages of growth. An increase in the level of nitrogen up to 120 kg per hectare reflected significant increase in various growth characters of plant, yield and physico- chemical composition of fruits. But number of days taken to flowering was reduced significantly with the increased level of nitrogen. The application of 60 kg phosphorus per hectare also recorded the same trend for the characters studies as it was found in case of nitrogen. Earliest flowering and height number of fruits per plant were noted under N2P2 treatment combination where as highest yields per hectare was noted under N2P2 treatment combination, which was found significantly superior to other combination. Physico- chemical composition of fruits was also influenced by treatment combination. The length, diameter, fresh weight and dry weight of per fruit were maximum under a treatment combination of N2P2. The most important study of this experiment is the application of various nutrients 120 kg nitrogen, 60 kg phosphorus per hectare had given better results on almost all the characters under study. However, the N2P2 combination gave the highest yields.
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is bulb vegetables used as spice and flavouring agent and medicinal plant. It is a cold weather crop with high water and nutrient requirement. Numerous problems are accounted for the low productivity of garlic in developing countries like Ethiopia among which fertilizer management is the major one. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus levels on growth and yield performance of two garlic varieties in central Ethiopia and economically judicious rate of N and P was determined for garlic production. Varieties showed a variation for the growth yield and yield attributes and bulb tissue N and P. growth , yield and yield attributes had also positively responded for the applied NP fertilizer and interaction between nitrogen and phosphorus had also affected the yield components of the crop. The highest economic benefit of 155037 ETB per hectare was obtained from the application of 100 kg N and 50 kg P2O5 per hectare in Tsedey92 variety. And obviously this book can help as a reference for researchers and as guidance for farmers who interested in garlic production with appropriate fertilizer management.