Sorghum is one of the cereal crops grown in most parts of the world for animal feed and human consumption. Its wide range of adaptations makes it to be called a “Camel Crop” and may be a crop for the future especially in drought prone areas as it tends to tolerate water shortage and stress. This booklet highlights some of the effects of nitrogen on sorghum growth, quality and yield. The subject matter covered in this book will help students, farmers and those involved in research to learn more about the influence of various levels of nitrogen on sorghum growth. Dr Cleto Namoobe
Oilseeds occupy an important place in the agricultural and industrial economy of India and constitute the second major group of crops in the country being next to food grains. The escalating demand and an almost stagnant production and supply have resulted in oil crisis reflecting in the huge oil imports. There is no scope to increase area under these crops. It is, therefore, imperative to increase the production of oilseeds, which could be achieved by exploiting the yield potential of these crops under a given set of environmental conditions. Gobhi sarson (Brassica napus L.) has widely been accepted by farmers, because of its high yield potential, wide adaptability, suitability for late planting by transplanting, higher oil content of good quality and is also suitable as pot herb. It also escapes frost damage owing to prolonged vegetative phase and late bolting. Age of seedlings and nitrogen levels bring about morphological changes and provide conditions for plant growth and development, optimum root growth to envelop maximum soil volume for nutrients uptake and optimum utilization of available resources like water, land etc.
A field experiment was conducted at Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine Research field during 2010/2011 in dry season to study the effects of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilization on growth, yield, quality and storage life of irrigated Onion under Jimma conditions, Southwestern Ethiopia. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations of four levels of N as Urea, three levels of P as TSP and four levels of K as Potassium sulphate which were laid out in a Randomized Incomplete Block Design with three replications. Data on growth, yield, quality and storage life parameters were recorded and analyzed using GenStat 12.1 version computer soft ware packages. Results of the study revealed that; N, P and K had shown a highly significant difference on growth, yield, quality and storage life parameters.
This book basically based on an applied research whose main objectives were to: 1.To see the effect of different phosphorus levels on growth and nitrogen fixation by mash bean. 2.To determine the optimum level of phosphorus for nitrogen fixation by mash bean. In the course of this research experiment we concluded that N2 fixation capacity and yield components of mash bean were enhanced by the application of phosphorus. Response of mash bean was more pronounced to the highest and medium levels of phosphorus fertilization as compare to low level of phosphorus and control.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important food crop in the Ethiopian agriculture. However, the crop’s production is constrained by many biotic and abiotic factors. Amongst Striga hermonthica (Del.) Benth is the most tenacious, prolific and destructive agricultural pests to sorghum crop.This pest is most abundant and damaging on soils of low fertility and nitrogen is an essential element for reversing this effect. Field experiment was conducted during 2008 (2000/01 E.C.) crop growing rainy season Northern Ethiopia to study the productivity response of sorghum varieties to different rates of nitrogen application under naturally Striga infested field. Results showed that application of N-fertilizer at different rates significantly increased plant height, leaf area, leaf area index, panicle length, yield per panicle, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, Stover yield and harvest index over the control.
A field experiment was conducted at Jimma University College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine research field from October 2011 to March 2012 under irrigation to assess the response of onion to farmyard manure and nitrogen fertilizer rates. The study consists of four levels of FYM (0, 15, 30 and 45 ton FYM ha-1) and four levels of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha-1). The experiment was conducted in 4 ? 4 factorial arrangements in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on growth, yield, and quality parameters were recorded and analyzed using SAS Computer Software version 9.2. Results revealed that interaction of FYM and N fertilizer significantly (P < 0.05) influenced Plant height, number of leaves, leaf lengh, maturity, average bulb weight, total yield, marketable yield, harvest index, bulb dry matter, TSS and split bulbs. However, leaf diameter, bulb length, bulb diameter and unmarketable yield were not affected by the combined application of FYM and N fertilizer. The findings highlighted that the performance of onion at Jimma area can be enhanced through application of FYM and N fertilizers.
The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three dates of transplanting (D1, D2 and D3) as main plot treatment, three genotypes (V1, V2 and V3) and two nitrogen levels (N1 and N2) as sub-plot treatment with three replications. The results obtained during the track of study, discovered that the weather had played, significant role in deciding the yield of rice. However, the weather variables affected the crop growth, development and yield differently in different phenophases during its growth period. The results, regarding different phenophases as well as yield attributing characters of rice genotypes as influenced by different treatments.
Nitrogen application showed significant response at all the stages of growth. An increase in the level of nitrogen up to 120 kg per hectare reflected significant increase in various growth characters of plant, yield and physico- chemical composition of fruits. But number of days taken to flowering was reduced significantly with the increased level of nitrogen. The application of 60 kg phosphorus per hectare also recorded the same trend for the characters studies as it was found in case of nitrogen. Earliest flowering and height number of fruits per plant were noted under N2P2 treatment combination where as highest yields per hectare was noted under N2P2 treatment combination, which was found significantly superior to other combination. Physico- chemical composition of fruits was also influenced by treatment combination. The length, diameter, fresh weight and dry weight of per fruit were maximum under a treatment combination of N2P2. The most important study of this experiment is the application of various nutrients 120 kg nitrogen, 60 kg phosphorus per hectare had given better results on almost all the characters under study. However, the N2P2 combination gave the highest yields.
In an attempt to study the relationship between seed zinc content and seedling vigour, hundred rabi sorghum genotypes were raised during rabi 2009-10.The genotypes at 30 DAS were categorized as low,medium and high vigour types based on drymatter accumulation.In high vigour genotypes the total dry matter ranged from 10.21-12.35g and in medium it ranged from 9.07-10.19g and in low vigour ranged from 6.25-8.84g plant-1. High vigor genotypes had higher zinc content 3.13-4.49 and low vigour types 1.96-2.66 mg100g-1. Thus there was correlation between seedling vigour and seed zinc content. To enhance the seed zinc content in selected genotypes in the field, zinc sulphate @ 10 kg/ha in combination with organics (1t/ha) at the time of sowing increased seed yield by 23% and seed zinc content by 23.6%.Root and shoot growth of sorghum increased considerably due to addition zinc at early stage.Low zinc types responded higher than high vigour types.Thus, zinc has differential response in sorghum genotypes based on vigour and growth.Therefore it is concluded that high vigour types are better for higher response to zinc, seed zinc content and yield too.
Production of barley is affected by many factors: sowing, topography, fertilization, temperature flux etc. Among them temperature plays an important role in plant growth and development. Due to high temperature, vegetative phase shortened and steep rise in temperature at the grain filling stage which causes abortion of florets and reduced kernel weight. Most of the characters were highest in early sown (S1 and S2) and higher nitrogen (N4). Grain filling duration from anthesis to physiological maturity was shortened by 1.37 and 1.77 day /°C rise in temperature, grain weight decreased by 0.18 and 0.82 mg/°C rise in temperature and grain weight increased by 0.30 and 0.07 mg/day increase in grain filling duration in two consecutive years. Fertile tillers/plant, panicle length, number of spikelet/spike, 1000-grain weight and grain protein contents were proved to be the most stable yield components. Nitrogen utilization was also higher in early sowing and higher nitrogen concentration. NUE increased significantly up to N2 but NHI increased significantly up to N1. Experimental findings will help the barley growers and researchers to intensify their knowledge of proper crop management.
Potato is the most important vegetable in Ethiopia for cash and plays important role in food security.It is short duration vegetable and highly productive as compared to other cereals. However its productivity in the country is very low as compared to the worlds. The main factors contributing this low yield includes lack of improved varieties,poor agronomic practices, diseases and insect pests,poor post harvest management activities and poor quality seed tubers used by farmers in the country. The main quality parameters for potato seed tubers are temperature and storage duration that affect the physiological age of the tuber during production. Therefore, this book contains important information for potato seed producers in the country about seed potato storage duration and factors affecting the quality of the tubers used as a seed.
Potato being a short duration crop, fits very well in rice based cropping system even under Terai Agro-Climatic situation of West Bengal, India where winter is prolonged and kharif rice is harvested even in mid December in low lying situation. There are many factors, which effect the potato production under delayed planting condition, however, nitrogen nutrition is of out most importance. Inadequate use of nitrogen decreases potato yield by decreasing plant growth characters. On the contrary, excess nitrogen may also hinder its yield by reducing translocation of photosynthates from top to bottom. Mr.Debadis Mahata conducted an experiment in a Randomized Block Design with eight different levels of nitrogen: 75 Kg N /ha (T1), 90 Kg N /ha (T2), 105 Kg N /ha (T3), 120 Kg N /ha (T4), 135 Kg N /ha (T5), 150 Kg N /ha (T6), 165 Kg N /ha (T7) and 180 Kg N /ha (T8) to study the effect of different levels of Nitrogen on Net Photosynthesis Rate, Stomatal Conductance Rate, Transpiration Rate and economics of potato cultivation and recommended the right dose of nitrogen for Terai agro-climatic region of West Bengal.
Fodder beet(Beta vulgaris),a member of Chenopodiaceae,is a higher productive forage crop,used in farm animals.it is succulent,palatable,digestble and is of high nutritional value(12 M J/Kg D M,NFE =72% DM).It is not common in the Sudan and there is no scientific research concerning its production.Thus an experiment to evaluate the performance of three beet cultivars for their growth,yield,quality under 0.0,40,80,120 Kg N/ha and 15,20,25 plant spacing,was carried out at the Demonstration farm-College of Agricultural Studies (Shambat)-Sudan University of Science and Technology(2007-2009).The feeding value of beet(feed intake,milk yield and composition)compared to fodder sorghum(CV Abu70),the existing popular grass forage,was carried at the Milk Farm-Animal Production College-Sudan University.80 Kg N/ha and 15cm result in better growth,higher yield(60 Green,7 Dry t/ha) and good quality.The nutritive, feeding value of beet is better than Abu70 ,it reduced cost of feeding by
Potato production is an important agricultural activity in the southern Ethiopia. However, the yield of the crop is very low due to a number of constraints among which low soil fertility and poor agronomic practices are few. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and plant spacing on growth, yield and yield components of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) at Umbullo Watcho watershed, Southern Region in 2010 cropping season. The experimental treatments; five nitrogen levels (0, 55, 110, 165 and 220 kg N ha-1) as sub plot and three intra- row plant spacing (25, 30 and 35cm) as main plot were laid out in split plot design with three replications. Therefore, the research was carried out with the following objectives: Evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer and /or plant spacing on growth and tuber yield of potato, assess nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency and nutrient recovery by the potato crop and assess the economic benefit of nitrogen fertilizer use.
High quality seed is the key for successful agriculture in modern era. The seed quality as determined by vigour and viability of the seed, is influenced by the environmental conditions under which a seed crop matures. Besides environmental factors, seed production in okra is influenced by different factors such as sowing dates and plant geometry. Available reports suggest that planting dates play an important role in growth, fruit formation and seed yield in okra. The early sown crops experience high temperature and hot winds during their growth period resulting in stunted growth, less number of fruits and reduced seed yield. Whereas, the late sown crops which encounter high rainfall during flowering and fruit set are more prone to attack by insect-pests and diseases. Plant density also plays an important role in the seed production of okra. Keeping the above facts in view, this book was written describing the effect of date of sowing and plant geometry on growth, seed yield and seed quality of okra (variety Varsha Uphar). It also ascertains the relationship of different sowing dates and plant geometry with seed quality in okra.