The study was conducted in selected district of Southern Ethiopia aimed at assessing the milk production, handling practices, utilization and the quality of milk and milk products. A total of 120 households were participated in the study. None of the respondents wash udder before milking. Olea Africana and Hygenia abyssinica were the most commonly smoking and cleaning plant in the district. Out of total monthly milk production (55 liter per household), 13.5 liters were consumed, whereas the remaining was accumulated for further processing. The average total bacterial count, enterobacteriaceae count and coliform count were, 9.82, 4.15, 4.03 Log CFU/ml, respectively. Generally the mean value of total bacterial, coliform and Entrobacteriacea count observed in the current study were above maximum acceptable limits. The milk produced in the study area should be heat treated and adequate sanitary measures need be taken at all stages of milk handling so that milk of acceptable quality can be produced and reaches the consumer.
Production of milk is a key activity worldwide since dairy products' supply and demand is not balanced due to ever increasing need. Milk and milk products are used in different forms and marketed through both formal and informal ways. About 5% of milk and milk products produced are marketed in rural areas in traditional manner with poor handling. Quality is an important issue in production of hygienic products especially for safety of consumers in which both microbial and chemical properties of milk produced in Boditti, Wolaita, South Ethiopia was considered. Overall, this book will help producers, different stakeholders, students, researchers and governmental organizations in making information accessible.
In Ethiopia the smallscale milk production and processing is an integral part of the farming system. Milk is a source of food, income, and social functions. However, due to low external inputs, population pressure and land degradation, smallscale milk production system is characterized by poor productivity. Most milk produced in Ethiopia comes from the smallscale farms in rural areas, and it is consumed at home or marketed, either fresh or sour, and only in the vicinity of local markets that surpluses milk processed into dairy products especially butter with longer shelf life. Most producers in the country rely on traditional technologies to increase the storage stability of milk and milk products either by converting the milk to shelf stable products like butter and ghee or by treating with traditional preservatives, which result in poor quality of milk and milk products. Adoption of improved handling practices is not common. Although training and extension services could enhance dairy production and marketing, women, who are responsible for most dairy activities are not targeted for dairy related training and extension services.
Recognizing safety issues concerning food-borne diseases, many countries established quality standards for dairy products to protect consumer health. In Ethiopia, the smallholder milk production system accounts for 97% of the country's annual milk production. Most of the milk production and processing therefore take place at rural smallholder household level and marketing in rural areas with inaduquate required dairy infrastructure. Very little is known about production and handling conditions, and quality of products manufactured under such conditions. This book therefore provides information on hygienic practices followed by various dairy value chain actors during production and handling of milk and milk products, and their microbial and chemical properties. The information reported in this book should be of importance for further investigation in identifying species of economic and public health importance and thereby making improvement interventions. The book should therefore be of particular interest and useful to producers of different scale, concerned domestic and international research and development organizations, graduate students and relevant public bodies.
In Ethiopia, about 98 % of milk production comes from the traditional production systems where milk handling and preservation methods are totally based on traditional practices. Besides,there are no modern preservatives and cooling techniques used in the system. Smallholder milk producers use different traditional storage and processing facilities. Plant materials are used for seasoning and fumigation of milk containers with the hypothesis to increase the shelf life of highly perishable dairy products such as milk, butter milk, cottage type cheese and butter. Among which butter is the most shelf stable product. Traditional ghee is another product which is made from butter by using various types of spices and it has average shelf life of a year with out the use of improved preservation techniques. Besides, these practices are believed to impart good flavors which are liked by the society. Hence, in this book attempt was made to assess these practices for further technological interventions. Moreover the microbial quality of milk collected from farm villages is substandard and it calls for public health concerns.
The word “cheese” could be used for the products manufactured from cow’s milk, but milk from buffalo, sheep, goat and/or camel could also be used to make different types of cheese. There is no any documentary information available on the manufacturing of camel milk products (i.e butter, butter oil, yoghurt and cheese) from camel milk. However, some of the indigenous varieties of cheese, i.e Paneer, Peshawari cheese and processed cheddar cheese and/or cottage cheese have been produced in Pakistan. To make cheese from camel milk is one of the approach to produce camel milk products and make it valuable for consumers with the objectives to improve the quality of soft unripened cheese, to evaluate the sensory quality and to develop cheese acceptability profile made from camel milk.
The investigation was conducted with the objectives to study economics of milk and milk products, marketing of milk and milk products and to analyse strengths and weaknesses of private and cooperative marketing systems.A random sample of 60 farmers comprising of 30 milk producers selling milk to private and 30 milk producers selling milk to cooperative sectors was drawn for the study purpose. In case of cooperative milk product production, Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh, Khatima was selected Then a random sample of 10 private milk product producers was drawn from Rudrapur and Khatima blocks of district Udham Singh Nagar. The important policy implications of the study are Development of efficient milk collection centres with proper cooling facilities and transportation networks at farmers level by the cooperatives could reduce the cost of transportation and thus help in maintaining quality of milk and milk products. Steps may be taken by dairy cooperatives to consider the cost of milk production besides fat and SNF, in fixing the procurement price of milk.The private milk product producers should enhance their scale of production in order to reduce manufacturing cost.
Milk is the most common balanced food prepared by nature for a newly born animal. However by employing modern techniques the production potential of a milch animal is increased beyond the requirement of its young one so that human also benefit from the nature's gift of balanced food. Commercialization of milk and milk products necessitates the bulk handling of milk in diary plants big or small, at the rural areas or urban areas by illiterate, semi-literate or illiterate people. Keeping this fact in mind Dairy production and processing technology is published to help vetenerian, extension workers, farmers, and those who are going to adopt the Dairy farming.
Dairying is an important component of mixed farming system in India. Operation Flood Programme initiated during 1970 increased the production and availability of milk in the country. Over the years, the demand for dairy products has also increased substantially. However, the quantum and type of products consumed have been seen to vary across different regions due to differences in purchasing power, taste and food habit of people. In this book an attempt is made to explore the consumption of milk and milk products in the North Eastern state of Tripura where the demand for dairy products has been increasing due to rapid socio-economic changes. An enquiry about the expenditure pattern, income and expenditure elasticity, different influencing factors and inequalities existed in the expenditure on milk and milk products in rural and urban areas are the key features of this book. This book can serve as a good reference for students, researchers and policy makers working in the field of Agricultural Economics.
Present manuscript reports about the factors affecting milk production & composition & also points out the management factors affecting udder health in traditionally managed camels.Season of the year, parity & stage of lactation affected significantly(p0.05) on milk acidity, parity significantly affecting (p0.05) on %age protein, fat, lactose, acidity and SNF. This study indicated that camels are reliable source of milk in hostile regions & proper mastitis control program & provision of adequate feed & water during extreme weather would result in better production.
Dairying is the backbone of the marginal farmers and landless labourers spread over numerous villages scattered throughout the India. It is primary source of income and employment for many of India’s poor. This sector can play an important role in determining future prospects for the employment generation and poverty alleviation in the India. Performance of dairy sector is expected to influence growth in the rural economy. The feed for milch animals is largely dependent on the crop residues and agro-industrial bio-products. Milk production in India is a low output farm activity wherein about three-quarters of rural households own one to three milch animals. Income from dairying, which often helps tide over unforeseen demand for liquid cash, contributes nearly one-third of the rural household’s gross income and in case of landless wage earning households nearly half. In the present study attempt had been made to examine the costs and returns from milk production, estimate resource use efficiency and study the marketed surplus and disposal pattern of milk by the milk producers in the study area and also suggest the way of increasing profit of milk producers.
Ethiopia is known for its leading livestock head in the continent. However, unlike the fact that agricultural knowledge and information play a significant role in improving productivity, linking producers to remunerative markets, improving competitiveness in markets, research studies on the current livestock production and productivity is lacking in most parties of the country. So this book will contribute its best by offering critically important information on the existing cattle husbandry practices, milk production, handling, processing and marketing system in one of the north most districts in the country. Furthermore, it might be a clue for designing appropriate dairy development strategies, market orientations and providing base line information for further research and development.
The presented study was conducted in selected areas of central highlands of Ethiopia to evaluate the hygienic practices being carried out by the small holder dairy farmers of various dairy products including raw milk. The aim of the study was to determine the microbial and chemical properties of milk and asses the marketing situation of milk and milk products. The study was carried out with 173 smallholder dairy farmers, 74, 50 and 49 respondents each from Holetta, Selale and Debre Brhan respectively. The average of total solids, total proteins, fat,carbohydrate and ash percentages of milk were 12.97, 3.52, 4.53, 4.36 and 0.64 respectively. The average total bacteria, coliform and entrobacteria counts of milk samples were 7.6, 3.6 and 3.2 Log CFU/ml respectively; there was no significant difference between the areas. The level of contamination of milk was high and about 88.8% of the pathogens were entrobacteria.The price of whole milk was almost similar in all study areas whereas higher price was observed for butter in Debre Brhan and Ayib in Holetta. Incidence of microbial contamination of milk is a challenge for quality milk production and consumption in the area.
Lactation trial was conducted in cross bred cows for 120 days. The parameters were milk yield, milk composition, body weight, nutrient utilization and microbial protein synthesis in crossbred lactating cows after feeding garlic oil (T1) and garlic-oregano oil combination (T2). No changes were observed in milk yield and milk composition except increase in fat percentage at last fortnight. Both blood urea N and milk urea N were decreased in treatment group. As the sensory evaluation scores were of ‘good’ category, the milk of all the groups was fit for human consumption. EO did not make any significant impact on DM intake. The statistical analysis of data of DM and OM digestibility revealed that the differences between the groups were not significant (P0.05). Though allantoin and total PD concentration were numerically much higher in T1 than control, the variation did not differ significantly as standard error was much higher.
In Ethiopia about 98% of milk and milk products are produced in the traditional small scale production system. Milk processing is based on natural fermentation and traditional technologies.There are quit a lot of traditional milk products that are produced and processed using traditional knowledges gained from generations.But the shelflives of such products are short and their microbial qualities are substandard.Modern preservation and cooling techniques are not practiced in the system.Besides, such traditional practices are not well documented and thoroghly investigated.hence, there is a need to document the existing knowledge to embark in to modern technologies.Simple and easily adoptable tecnologogies are also needed to be popularized in the system to bridge the gaps to produce and process shelfstable and quality dairy products.