Production of milk is a key activity worldwide since dairy products' supply and demand is not balanced due to ever increasing need. Milk and milk products are used in different forms and marketed through both formal and informal ways. About 5% of milk and milk products produced are marketed in rural areas in traditional manner with poor handling. Quality is an important issue in production of hygienic products especially for safety of consumers in which both microbial and chemical properties of milk produced in Boditti, Wolaita, South Ethiopia was considered. Overall, this book will help producers, different stakeholders, students, researchers and governmental organizations in making information accessible.
The study was conducted in selected district of Southern Ethiopia aimed at assessing the milk production, handling practices, utilization and the quality of milk and milk products. A total of 120 households were participated in the study. None of the respondents wash udder before milking. Olea Africana and Hygenia abyssinica were the most commonly smoking and cleaning plant in the district. Out of total monthly milk production (55 liter per household), 13.5 liters were consumed, whereas the remaining was accumulated for further processing. The average total bacterial count, enterobacteriaceae count and coliform count were, 9.82, 4.15, 4.03 Log CFU/ml, respectively. Generally the mean value of total bacterial, coliform and Entrobacteriacea count observed in the current study were above maximum acceptable limits. The milk produced in the study area should be heat treated and adequate sanitary measures need be taken at all stages of milk handling so that milk of acceptable quality can be produced and reaches the consumer.
Recognizing safety issues concerning food-borne diseases, many countries established quality standards for dairy products to protect consumer health. In Ethiopia, the smallholder milk production system accounts for 97% of the country's annual milk production. Most of the milk production and processing therefore take place at rural smallholder household level and marketing in rural areas with inaduquate required dairy infrastructure. Very little is known about production and handling conditions, and quality of products manufactured under such conditions. This book therefore provides information on hygienic practices followed by various dairy value chain actors during production and handling of milk and milk products, and their microbial and chemical properties. The information reported in this book should be of importance for further investigation in identifying species of economic and public health importance and thereby making improvement interventions. The book should therefore be of particular interest and useful to producers of different scale, concerned domestic and international research and development organizations, graduate students and relevant public bodies.
In Ethiopia the smallscale milk production and processing is an integral part of the farming system. Milk is a source of food, income, and social functions. However, due to low external inputs, population pressure and land degradation, smallscale milk production system is characterized by poor productivity. Most milk produced in Ethiopia comes from the smallscale farms in rural areas, and it is consumed at home or marketed, either fresh or sour, and only in the vicinity of local markets that surpluses milk processed into dairy products especially butter with longer shelf life. Most producers in the country rely on traditional technologies to increase the storage stability of milk and milk products either by converting the milk to shelf stable products like butter and ghee or by treating with traditional preservatives, which result in poor quality of milk and milk products. Adoption of improved handling practices is not common. Although training and extension services could enhance dairy production and marketing, women, who are responsible for most dairy activities are not targeted for dairy related training and extension services.
The investigation was conducted with the objectives to study economics of milk and milk products, marketing of milk and milk products and to analyse strengths and weaknesses of private and cooperative marketing systems.A random sample of 60 farmers comprising of 30 milk producers selling milk to private and 30 milk producers selling milk to cooperative sectors was drawn for the study purpose. In case of cooperative milk product production, Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh, Khatima was selected Then a random sample of 10 private milk product producers was drawn from Rudrapur and Khatima blocks of district Udham Singh Nagar. The important policy implications of the study are Development of efficient milk collection centres with proper cooling facilities and transportation networks at farmers level by the cooperatives could reduce the cost of transportation and thus help in maintaining quality of milk and milk products. Steps may be taken by dairy cooperatives to consider the cost of milk production besides fat and SNF, in fixing the procurement price of milk.The private milk product producers should enhance their scale of production in order to reduce manufacturing cost.
This book provides the view of the Dairy production and prevailing constraints associated with cow milk hygiene, the hygienic conditions of cow’s milk and the microbial load of raw milk, milk-borne bacterial pathogens at farm level and selling points and the possible fecal contamination of milk produced by dairy farmers in Hawassa city. The bacteriological quality of the pasteurized milk from selling points and water source used for cleaning milk and milk product handling equipments also combined to see overall quality of the marketable fluid milk in the city. The overall aim of the present work is to contribute to the effort towards improving the quality of raw milk through providing information on quality and safety of raw milk produced and marketed in Hawassa city.
The word “cheese” could be used for the products manufactured from cow’s milk, but milk from buffalo, sheep, goat and/or camel could also be used to make different types of cheese. There is no any documentary information available on the manufacturing of camel milk products (i.e butter, butter oil, yoghurt and cheese) from camel milk. However, some of the indigenous varieties of cheese, i.e Paneer, Peshawari cheese and processed cheddar cheese and/or cottage cheese have been produced in Pakistan. To make cheese from camel milk is one of the approach to produce camel milk products and make it valuable for consumers with the objectives to improve the quality of soft unripened cheese, to evaluate the sensory quality and to develop cheese acceptability profile made from camel milk.
The presented study was conducted in selected areas of central highlands of Ethiopia to evaluate the hygienic practices being carried out by the small holder dairy farmers of various dairy products including raw milk. The aim of the study was to determine the microbial and chemical properties of milk and asses the marketing situation of milk and milk products. The study was carried out with 173 smallholder dairy farmers, 74, 50 and 49 respondents each from Holetta, Selale and Debre Brhan respectively. The average of total solids, total proteins, fat,carbohydrate and ash percentages of milk were 12.97, 3.52, 4.53, 4.36 and 0.64 respectively. The average total bacteria, coliform and entrobacteria counts of milk samples were 7.6, 3.6 and 3.2 Log CFU/ml respectively; there was no significant difference between the areas. The level of contamination of milk was high and about 88.8% of the pathogens were entrobacteria.The price of whole milk was almost similar in all study areas whereas higher price was observed for butter in Debre Brhan and Ayib in Holetta. Incidence of microbial contamination of milk is a challenge for quality milk production and consumption in the area.
Milk and milk products have an important place in the dietary regimen of human beings due to health benefits. The consumers in urban areas of Kerala spent more on milk and milk products than their rural counter parts. The inequality in consumption of milk and milk products in Kerala was marginally higher for rural consumers than that of their urban counterparts as revealed by the Gini coefficients and Lorenz curves, indicating that the expenditure on milk and milk products was more unevenly distributed among the rural population. The expenditure on cereals and millets, expenditure on pulse and pulse products, expenditure on fruits and vegetables and total expenditure were found to have positive and significant influence on expenditure on milk and milk products in Kerala. Expenditure on egg, fish and meat and expenditure on other foods including oils and fats were found to have significant negative influence on expenditure on milk and milk products.
In Ethiopia, about 98 % of milk production comes from the traditional production systems where milk handling and preservation methods are totally based on traditional practices. Besides,there are no modern preservatives and cooling techniques used in the system. Smallholder milk producers use different traditional storage and processing facilities. Plant materials are used for seasoning and fumigation of milk containers with the hypothesis to increase the shelf life of highly perishable dairy products such as milk, butter milk, cottage type cheese and butter. Among which butter is the most shelf stable product. Traditional ghee is another product which is made from butter by using various types of spices and it has average shelf life of a year with out the use of improved preservation techniques. Besides, these practices are believed to impart good flavors which are liked by the society. Hence, in this book attempt was made to assess these practices for further technological interventions. Moreover the microbial quality of milk collected from farm villages is substandard and it calls for public health concerns.
Milk is the most common balanced food prepared by nature for a newly born animal. However by employing modern techniques the production potential of a milch animal is increased beyond the requirement of its young one so that human also benefit from the nature's gift of balanced food. Commercialization of milk and milk products necessitates the bulk handling of milk in diary plants big or small, at the rural areas or urban areas by illiterate, semi-literate or illiterate people. Keeping this fact in mind Dairy production and processing technology is published to help vetenerian, extension workers, farmers, and those who are going to adopt the Dairy farming.
In Ethiopia about 98% of milk and milk products are produced in the traditional small scale production system. Milk processing is based on natural fermentation and traditional technologies.There are quit a lot of traditional milk products that are produced and processed using traditional knowledges gained from generations.But the shelflives of such products are short and their microbial qualities are substandard.Modern preservation and cooling techniques are not practiced in the system.Besides, such traditional practices are not well documented and thoroghly investigated.hence, there is a need to document the existing knowledge to embark in to modern technologies.Simple and easily adoptable tecnologogies are also needed to be popularized in the system to bridge the gaps to produce and process shelfstable and quality dairy products.
Milk has a very wide importance both as a source of food and source of income in pastoral and agro-pastoral areas. On the contrary, the level of milk production is very low because of low production from endogenous milk cow and camel. Even at the present level of milk production, the product suffered lack of market and low price. Measures to solve the problem were limited partly for reasons of little research done and lack of attention given to the livestock subsector by policy makers. Hence, this study was initiated to partially fill this gap. The study used Heckman selection and Multiple linear regression models to indentify factors affecting Cow and Camel milk marketed surplus, respectively. The Policy relevant variables identified for both milk are number of milk cows and camels, access to market information, income from non-dairy sources and market price of cow and camel milk. The S-C-P model identified that the markets for camel and cow milk in the study area were non-competitive type. Generally, camel and cow milk market in the study area seemed to be inefficient and underdeveloped.
Sandesh occupies a prominent place among indigenous milk products and carries lot of market potential. Sandesh is the most popular chhana based sweet delicacy of the eastern part of India particularly in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Certain alteration is necessary in the processing technique for conversion of buffalo milk to obtain good quality chhana thereby good quality Sandesh. Some of the treatments which can be adopted are adjustment in fat percent of milk, adjustment in salt balance of buffalo milk, homogenization of milk, change in the coagulation temperature, etc. In India, buffalo milk account for over 55 percent of the country’s total milk production. So, the main source of marketable surplus is buffalo milk. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the manufacture of Sandesh and other chhana based product from cow and buffalo milk.
Dairying is an important component of mixed farming system in India. Operation Flood Programme initiated during 1970 increased the production and availability of milk in the country. Over the years, the demand for dairy products has also increased substantially. However, the quantum and type of products consumed have been seen to vary across different regions due to differences in purchasing power, taste and food habit of people. In this book an attempt is made to explore the consumption of milk and milk products in the North Eastern state of Tripura where the demand for dairy products has been increasing due to rapid socio-economic changes. An enquiry about the expenditure pattern, income and expenditure elasticity, different influencing factors and inequalities existed in the expenditure on milk and milk products in rural and urban areas are the key features of this book. This book can serve as a good reference for students, researchers and policy makers working in the field of Agricultural Economics.